Middle Georgia College had its beginning in a denominational institution, the College of the New Ebenezer Association. The association was composed largely of Baptist churches in Pulaski, Dodge, Laurens, and Telfair counties.
The establishment of the institution was authorized by the association on October 20, 1884. The first building was constructed during 1885 and 1886. Instruction began on January 10, 1887, with approximately a hundred students, most of whom were from the middle Georgia area.
During the early period, the institution was divided into preparatory and collegiate departments. A stated purpose of the curriculum, as described in the catalog of 1887, was "to prepare pupils for business or for the Junior Class in Universities. This includes Latin, Greek, Mathematics, Natural Science and several modern languages, with English studies and Music." Thus, the two-year college idea was among the primary intentions of the founders.
On August 21, 1917, an agricultural and mechanical school for the Twelfth Congressional District was established to continue the educational services for the area on the same campus. This school was chartered as one of the branches of the Georgia State College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, a department of the University of Georgia.
On August 20, 1927, the Middle Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical Junior College was established. This, too, was a branch of the University of Georgia. The name was changed to Middle Georgia College, and the operation of the college was placed under a nine-man board of trustees on August 28, 1929.
Middle Georgia College was placed under the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia, a constitutional body, as a separate unit of the University System on August 27, 1931. The Dublin Center was located in Dublin in 1984.